Water is the most significant source not only in the house, but also in the summer cottage. Without it, life for the sake of a metropolis becomes uncomfortable. You will need to bring with you bottles of store water. For this reason, many people, when purchasing an open area, initially think about water supply. The first idea that appears is the installation of a water supply system.
Varieties of wells
Before you start drilling wells, you should carefully examine the area of your own site and find out at what depth the groundwater lies. This parameter is very significant, since it has a strong impact on the volume of work performed.
The selection of the type of well is performed based on the depth of the water-containing layer:
- If on-site water is available at a depth of 3–12 meters, then in this case an Abyssinian well is preferred.
- If the aquifer is at a depth of 50 m, then a sand well is arranged.
- The installation of an artesian well is resorted to if the layer with water is located at a depth of less than 200 m.
Any owner of a summer cottage is capable of creating wells of the 1st and 2nd types. But drilling the third is not so easy. To do it, highly qualified drillers should be involved in the work, which use special special equipment that ensures the formation of a water supply source.
Do-it-yourself drilling methods
Drilling a well with their own hands, as a rule, is arranged by the owners in order to reduce cash costs, save on calling experts and attracting high-quality equipment. However, whatever one may say, this is a rather difficult workflow, which can be carried out using appropriate methods:
- shock rope;
- hydrodrilling, using a hand-made structure.
The first method is the most common. It consists in drilling a well with a drill and using a tripod with a screw, which will require constant extraction, to clean the blades from sticky soil. In addition, a lifting device is needed, it can be manual or mechanized. This type of drilling is suitable for soft soil types.
On clay soil, they work according to the principle of percussion-rope drilling. This is the most time-consuming method, but quite acceptable for personal implementation. In this case, the drilling device is a difficult hydraulic cylinder with trimmed blades, it rises above the ground and, upon impact, hammers into the depth, and when it is raised, the soil is turned inside out.
The third method is to create the drilling apparatus with your own hands according to the directions. This, of course, will take a lot of time, but it will turn out to reduce the monetary costs of attracting special equipment. Hydraulic drilling makes it possible to make wells up to 50 meters deep, which call for the presence of casing.
What time of year to drill a well
For some reason, many people think that it is more correct to carry out all construction and drilling work in the warm season, which, in principle, is partly correct - since in winter the soil freezes and complicates the work. But for many years in a row, in almost all areas affecting work with soil, equipment has been used that simply passes through the frozen soil. Well drilling is not considered an exception to this list. Therefore, it is possible to simply note that it is allowed to carry out drilling work both in winter and in summer.
Any season has its own pros and cons, but directly:
- Spring is a traditional period for construction, but spring floods increase the level of groundwater and make it difficult to find the aquifer;
- Summer is a period when the land is drained, and it is not difficult to find an aquifer, therefore, those who are ready to wait for a suitable period, as a rule, wait for summer and, accordingly, there are considerable queues for drilling, which negatively affect the quality of the work of experts.
- Autumn, especially in the first months, is favorable for drilling: the summer heat has dried the soil, and it is not difficult to establish an aquifer. This time of the year is the best for drilling wells up to 25 meters deep. In the coldest weather, as a rule, the zone for winter work is "harvested" - the soil is drilled to the freezing depth.
- Winter is a period when, in spite of the widespread judgment, quite a few wells are being set up. In winter, precipitation has little effect on the degree of groundwater, and the frozen soil on the site will not suffer from the wheels of heavy equipment. Numerous land plot owners are postponing drilling for the winter, since during this period it is possible to obtain a high-quality result for the lowest cost than in the summer.
How to choose the right place
Many site owners believe that the location of the upcoming well depends only on their wishes, but this is not entirely true. Of course, there is water in the ground in every area, but it will not be able to provide the required volume and quality everywhere. Aquifers in different areas are located at different depths, and the depth of drilling affects the price of the entire company. In accordance with this, it is in the interests of the owners to choose the zone for the well, starting more from the comfort of drilling, and not from personal tastes.
In order to make it more comfortable and cheaper to carry out the water supply, it is necessary to place the well as close to the house as possible. At a minimum, the distance at which a water well can be located close to the base of the house is 3 meters. In addition, there should be no sources of clogging nearby - cesspools, garbage dumps, dumps, manure heaps and the rest. The distance from them to the well must be at least 50-100 meters.
It is also not necessary to equip a well in the lowest part of the site - all flood waters will begin to approach it, and, although they will not affect the quality of the water, the caisson may suffer losses from them.
The area where drilling is planned to be carried out must be provided with a free access for special equipment. Directly for this reason, it is often difficult to drill a well in the summer season - special equipment violates the soil with wheels and will not be able to maneuver between flower beds and lawns.