Types of paints for painting

Paints and varnishes are used as the finishing exterior and interior decoration of buildings. They give the surface an aesthetic appearance, serve as protection against corrosion, moisture and ultraviolet radiation.

Application of paints in construction and repair

Painting is a popular type of decoration for buildings and structures. The coating has a decorative function, protects against negative external influences, and extends the service life.

Paints and varnishes (LKM) contain from 8 to 16 components... Basic:

  • Pigments - the uniformity and intensity of surface overlap, resistance to atmospheric factors and temperature depend on their type.
  • Excipients - regulate the texture of paints, provide good adhesion.
  • Binders - components that form a film on the surface, retain fillers and pigments.
  • Solvents (alcohols, water, oils and others) - reduce the viscosity of the product.

To impart special properties, various supplements: fungicides, fire-resistant defoamer, frost resistance enhancer.

Coloring compositions protect metal products from corrosion, and wood from drying out, cracking, and decay. When performing repair work, they are used for finishing the facade, interior walls, window and door structures, floors, furniture, interior items and landscape design.

The paints are applied on a flat, prepared surface. To improve adhesion and reduce paint consumption, it is recommended to use a primer.

The performance and composition of a product determine its application. When buying a composition for painting, they pay attention to its safety, resistance to moisture, pollution, ultraviolet light, and drying speed. Important and base type:

  • concrete - the product should prevent dust formation, give an aesthetic appearance, water and organic soluble paints and varnishes (emulsions, polyurethane and alkyd compounds) are recommended;
  • metal - the main task is protection from moisture, oil, alkyd and acrylic products are suitable;
  • wood - the paint should contain fungicides, fire retardants, experts advise oil and alkyd options;
  • plaster - apply any types of paintwork materials (acrylic, latex), intended for the mineral base;
  • plastic - the product should not contain solvents that damage the material, for example, an aqueous polyurethane compound;
  • brick - recommended acrylic, PVA, these products are characterized by good hiding power, steam, are not afraid of ultraviolet radiation.

To choose the right product for decoration, you need to understand the variety of options offered, study their properties, strengths and weaknesses.

Classification of coloring compositions

The classification of paints occurs according to several main characteristics:

  • Appointment - universal, for indoor or outdoor use.
  • Solvent type - water-soluble (water emulsion) and with an organic solvent (white spirit, kerosene).
  • Gloss degree - matte, semi-matt, semi-gloss and glossy.
  • Operating conditions - weatherproof, waterproof, special, electrical insulating and others.
  • Surface type - wood, metal, concrete, rust, brick, plaster.

The most significant component that determines the physicochemical properties of the paint is the binder. The film former is based on natural or synthetic drying oil, minerals, resins, polymers.

Water based paints

Water-based paints are the best choice for indoor finishing work. The solvent in them is water, which eliminates the appearance of an unpleasant odor. Eco-friendly composition safe for health, fire resistant, vapor permeable... The suspension contains fillers, coloring pigments and additives. After the water evaporates, the fine particles form a durable coating on the surface. The paint is based on film-forming substances.


An emulsion is a composition obtained from small insoluble particles of polymers and pigments, suspended in water. LKM fits well on any surface, except for those previously painted with glossy paints or varnishes. It is economical, dries quickly and is odorless. Emulsions are resistant to moisture and alkalis, do not flake off. Their properties depend on the type of binder.


The universal product is recommended for indoor and outdoor painting. The binder of the paint is acrylic polymer. An elastic, frost-resistant, vapor-permeable film is formed on the surface to be trimmed, resistant to fading. Acrylic compositions differ from oil materials in drying speed, it varies from 20 minutes to several hours. The formed film can be washed. The coating lasts more than 10 years.

Acrylics are sold in cans and cans. The technology of applying paintwork materials allows you to efficiently process hard-to-reach areas, do without the use of painting tools (brushes and rollers).


Coloring products rubber based (latex) form a strong and moisture-resistant film on the surface. The coating is durable and environmentally friendly. The composition is easy to apply with a brush, roller or spray.

Latex material is recommended for rooms with increased requirements for durability, reliability and durability of the finish. The only drawback is the average UV resistance.


Polyvinyl acetate paints are dispersions with low water resistance, designed for dry rooms. They dry quickly and give a rich color. The product is offered ready-made, does not require dilution. A significant plus is the low price.


Paint compositions based on adhesive mixtures also belong to the group of water-soluble ones. Recommended for dry rooms only... They are not resistant to moisture, abrasion, and the appearance of microorganisms. They are used for painting plaster, concrete, brick, drywall. As part of paintwork materials chalk, starch, glue (casein, glutin, albumin), pigments and fillers. Water is used to dilute the dry product.


The product forms a stable film, thanks to which it can be applied not only indoors, but also on the facade. When manufacturing is taken casein glue, chalk, alkali-resistant pigments, alum and water. The composition is recommended for durable surfaces (concrete or plastered). It is divorced immediately prior to use on the construction site.


Products based on dextrin isolated from starch, manufactured with the addition of bone glue... After drying, the porous coating is good for air and moisture. A solution of dry powder is prepared 1: 1. To enhance water resistance, linseed oil is introduced (60-70 ml per 1 liter).

The disadvantages of all adhesives include heterogeneity, application complexity, and low decorative characteristics.


The advantages of paintwork materials based on organosilicon resins include ease of application, low cost, versatility. The water-dispersed composition has no odor, differs in vapor permeability, resistance to temperature changes, the action of microorganisms, moisture and sunlight.

The product is versatile, suitable for any surface, can be applied to the facade. Due to its viscous structure, no special preparation of the base is required, the silicone material is able to mask small cracks. Among the disadvantages are the high cost of paintwork materials, as well as possible corrosion of the metal due to the gas permeability of the coating.

Paint and varnish on organic solvent

High quality coating and affordable cost allow organic solvent materials to compete with more environmentally friendly and safe water-dispersible paints. Leading manufacturers are reducing their number in the assortment, but not completely abandoning them. Compositions based on oil and various resins processing can be applied at low temperatures, fresh coating is not afraid of moisture.


Paints and varnishes based on alkyd resins belong to enamels... They are of two types: pentaphthalic and glyphthalic... For painting in everyday life, the first option is often used. Alkyd enamels are characterized by high covering power, resistance to mechanical damage, frost and moisture. The composition is easy to apply, has a pronounced gloss, is compatible with wood and metal. The downside of the material is the release of toxic substances during the drying process and poor vapor permeability.


The composition of oil paint contains toxic pigments (white lead, titanium dioxide), fillers, natural or combined drying oil... Paintwork materials give off a pungent chemical odor that is harmful to health. You can only work with it in a well-ventilated room or outdoors.

Despite the toxicity, oil-based formulations are used in construction and repair. Their demand is associated with positive characteristics: high moisture resistance, coating strength, affordable cost.


Enamel is called composition of varnish, pigments and solvent... It is suitable for painting metal, wood, concrete and brick surfaces. The resulting coating is distinguished by a glossy sheen, abrasion, sunlight, and water resistant.

If it is necessary to quickly dry the finish, preference is given to nitro enamel.

Mineral paints

Facade finishing is carried out with special compounds developed for the mineral surface. Such paints are diluted with water, have good vapor permeability, and are environmentally friendly. To increase frost resistance, synthetic resins are added to them.

Silicate paints

The composition of paintwork materials has one component - liquid glass with the addition of ethyl silicate, making it an excellent option for painting textured and smooth facades, interiors. The composition is characterized by strength, biological stability, non-flammability. Silicate paint is recommended for concrete, plaster, brick, clay, but it is incompatible with wood and plastic.

Lime compositions

The binder of the product is slaked lime. Inorganic pigments are used, additives are aluminum alum, calcium chloride, salt... The paint is resistant to moisture, temperature changes, its main advantage is its low cost.

Criterias of choice

Correctly chosen finishing emphasizes the dignity of the room, makes it stylish and attractive. But not only the aesthetic component of the decor is important when buying paintwork materials. Having studied the types of paints, you should pay attention to their purpose: for indoor or outdoor work. Safety, resistance to moisture, negative temperatures and external influences depend on this characteristic.

For interior work

The main requirements for paints and varnishes for interior decoration - environmental friendliness... The composition should not emit toxic substances and a pungent odor. Also important resistance to abrasion, sunlight, drying time and service life... For rooms with high humidity, waterproof paints (silicate, latex) are selected. Based on the selection criteria, experts advise purchasing water-dispersed compositions.

For external work

Facade paints are used in difficult conditions, so they must be resistant to low and high temperatures, moisture, mechanical stress, ultraviolet light, have good adhesion.

It is necessary to consider the type of base. For wood a moisture-proof material is needed that protects against insects, rot and cracking. On concrete and brick a vapor-permeable coating is recommended.

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An important characteristic of paint is hiding power - the ability to overlap the base surface. It is directly related to the consumption of the product. If the indicator is low, the composition will have to be applied in 2-3 layers. The price of paintwork materials plays a significant role in the selection. Quality products are more expensive, but they are safe, durable and provide an attractive finish.

What to look for when examining a label

The symbols on the paint and varnish label briefly inform about its properties, composition, consumption and purpose. The storage conditions, method of application, density and thickness of the coating are also indicated. Product marking is carried out using alphanumeric code... Its order:

  • type of binder (film-forming element);
  • group for the primary purpose;
  • factory serial number.

Film-forming base- these are the first two capital letters of the code (for example):

  • AK - polyacrylate;
  • AC - alkyd-acrylic;
  • BT - bituminous;
  • ZhS - silicate;
  • MA - oil;
  • PA - polyamide.

There are over 40 compositions in total. Also, the manufacturer can use its own designation.

Groups by appointment (operating conditions) are marked with serial numbers from 1 to 9:

  • weatherproof (outdoor work) - 1;
  • limited weather resistance (internal work) - 2;
  • conservation - 3;
  • waterproof - 4;
  • special - 5;
  • oil and petrol resistant - 6;
  • chemically resistant - 7;
  • heat-resistant - 8;
  • electrical insulating - 9.

The code is preceded by (not always) an index indicating type of paint:

  • B - without solvent;
  • B - water-borne;
  • VD - water dispersion;
  • OD - organodispersed;
  • P - powder.

For oil paints, a digital designation is additionally applied drying oil names:

  • natural -1;
  • oxol - 2;
  • glyphthalic - 3;
  • pentaphthalic - 4;
  • composite - 5.

Must be indicated paint type - acrylic, oil, alkyd, rubber and others. It is worth paying attention to product features - Recommended drying conditions (hot or cold), gloss level, flammability, viscosity.

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