The specificity of central heating services lies in higher tariffs in the absence of an installed heat meter in the apartment. Therefore, sooner or later, everyone comes to the decision to install this meter. However, the procedure for registration and selection of the optimal model can cause some difficulties. Therefore, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with all the specifics of the installation issue and the principle of operation of the heating meter in the apartment.
Heat meter installation time
Is it always advisable to purchase and issue a permit for the installation of a heat meter? Before performing these activities, all factors should be analyzed. A modern individual heating meter should reduce heating costs for apartment residents. But in practice, this does not always happen.
There are many positive aspects of installing a heating meter. First of all, this is a decrease in the monthly payment for district heating. But before you put the meter for heating in the apartment, you need to calculate the current costs and the desired economic effect from this. The following nuances are taken into account:
- The number of heating pipes in the apartment. Each of them requires installation of a metering device. If there are more than two, installation will be impractical. Considering the average cost of purchase and installation (20 thousand rubles) and possible savings (cost reduction by 25-30%) - compensation time can take from 8 to 17 years, depending on the number of risers;
- During the heating period, the pipes are constantly hot. You need to know how the heating meter works - it does not limit the flow of the coolant, but only records the thermal difference between the supply and return pipes. Therefore, in some cases, the final figure in cavitation about payment may not only not decrease, but also increase;
- The mandatory check of heating meters is taken into account, which is performed 1 time in 3-4 years. The costs of this event are borne solely by the owner of the apartment.
If, after a thorough analysis of these points, the economic feasibility of installation is deduced, the installation of meters for heating in the apartment is performed. But first you should draw up all the permissive documentation, find out the specifics of the functioning of this metering device.
All meters for central heating are installed only by representatives of the Management Company or organizations that have a special permit for this type of work.
The principle of operation of a heat meter
To connect a heat meter, it is necessary that the supply and return pipes in the apartment are close to each other. The basic principle of the meter for heating is to take into account the incoming coolant and the thermal difference between the lines.
It doesn't matter how the heating meter for the radiator or for the entire apartment will function. He must calculate the amount of consumed thermal energy according to the following formula:
Q = G * Δt
Where Q - the amount of heat supplied to the apartment,G - the amount of hot water passed through the supply line,Δt - the temperature difference between the supply return pipe.
In practice, to implement the principle of operation of a heat meter for heating, it must consist of the following components:
- Water metering device... It is no different from models for cold water supply;
- Two temperature sensors... They are connected to heat supply pipes. From them, readings about the level of water heating are sent to the electronic data processing module.
At first glance, meters for heating batteries should give an accurate result about the amount of heat energy supplied to the apartment. However, there are a number of factors that directly affect the degree of measurement error:
- The thermal difference is less than + 3 ° С... Relevant when installing a heat meter on only one heating battery;
- Reduced heating medium consumption - its circulation in the system is disturbed. All heat meters for heating in an apartment have the minimum permissible value of this indicator;
- Incorrect installation... The device is not installed in the direction of hot water flow, errors in the installation of temperature sensors.
It is these factors that make it possible to solve the question of how to deceive the heating meter. It is enough to slightly change the position of the device or artificially reduce the flow rate reading. But any check will easily reveal these violations. The management company will retaliate with a large fine.
The presence of a common house meter for central heating only partially solves the problem of savings. The running costs are shared among the residents of the building.
Permission for an individual heating meter
To install an individual heating meter, you first need to issue all permits. This can be done by contacting the Management Company with which a heat supply agreement has been concluded.
At the first request of the owner of the apartment, the Management Company must provide the Technical Conditions. According to them, the desired model and technology for installing a meter for heating in an apartment are selected. It is important to take into account all the requirements, because even a slight deviation from the technical specifications can lead to a refusal to install.
Then, already knowing how the heating meter works, you can start choosing the optimal model. During the purchase, you need to make sure that it has the appropriate certificates and will be approved by representatives of the management company.
Further steps for installing a heating meter on a radiator are as follows:
- Drafting a project... This should be done by a specialized organization. Its working rules are regulated by SNiP 41.02-2003. The license indicates the profile of the activity and the list of work that can be carried out by representatives of the organization. For the correct installation of heating meters in an apartment, they must undergo training courses in the technical supervision authorities and receive a certificate of this;
- Installation and commissioning of a heat meter for heating the apartment. The owner is given a copy of the act with wet seals and signatures of the representatives of the Criminal Code.
In addition, the owner must, on his own, carry out periodic checks of heating meters in the metrology and standardization bodies. Dismantling and subsequent installation cannot be done independently. To do this, you will again have to pay for the services of a specialized company.
The time for consideration of the application and preparation of the Technical Conditions by the Management Company for the installation of heating meters in the apartment should take no more than 1 month.
Types of heat meters
Before installing a heating meter in an apartment, you need to choose the right model for it. Currently, manufacturers offer several options for these heat meters. They differ in the principle of taking readings, accuracy and cost.
Given the general principle of operation of the meter for heating, they all consist of three separate elements:
- Warm water metering unit;
- Two temperature sensors;
- Electronic unit for processing the received information from the first two devices.
The difference between the models of heating meters for the battery lies in the principle of taking the reading of the metering device for the volume of the coolant. The rest of the components have minor discrepancies between the actual and calculated data on the temperature of hot and cooled water.
The choice of a heat meter for heat supply in an apartment is not affected by the size of the electronic unit. It can be located at a distance from the installation site of the water meter.
Mechanical heat meters
These are the simplest and most affordable devices for completing district heating meters. They work on the principle of converting the translational movement of the coolant into the rotary movement of the flow metering unit.
Depending on the principle of operation, mechanical heating meters are divided into several types:
- With impeller;
The main disadvantage of these devices is the high error in case of sharp changes in the speed of water movement. It should also be taken into account that the rotational element creates a path and a small hydraulic resistance. The composition of the coolant has a great influence on the quality of work of an individual heat supply meter. Mechanical models are not suitable for hard water. In this case, they must be replaced with contactless counterparts.
The average cost of mechanical (tachometric) models ranges from 4 to 9.5 thousand rubles.
The easiest way to trick a mechanical heating meter. To do this, it is enough to install powerful neodymium magnets on it. But in addition to a possible fine, such "modernization" can lead to a rapid failure of the device.
Vortex heat meters
The best option for the heating meter is to take current readings without directly affecting the coolant flow. Vortex models can be classified as such devices.
Its principle of operation is based on the analysis of vortex anomalies that arise due to an artificial obstacle. This design allows for high accuracy readings of the volume of water that has passed through the device. It should also be noted the following positive qualities of a vortex heat meter for heating radiators:
- Optional presence of straight sections. This condition must be met only for mechanical models of metering devices;
- The composition of the water will not affect the error, and also will not affect the state of the meter;
- The presence of metallic impurities will not affect accuracy.
However, it is necessary to take into account the disadvantages of this metering device. These include the influence of air locks on the error. Also, the high cost of vortex metering devices make them unpopular for installation in a heating metering system in private houses and apartments. Most often they are used in industrial and commercial areas. Unlike mechanical models, the position of the vortex meter does not affect its operation.
Ultrasonic heat meters
The most unpopular type of heat meters. They work on the principle of varying the transit time of an audio signal through a liquid. This in turn depends on its speed.
The accuracy of the reading is influenced by the design of the central unit. It can be of the following types:
An important nuance is the purity of the coolant. It should be free of extraneous impurities in the form of scale, rust or high metal content. Otherwise, the accuracy of the reading of the device will deteriorate significantly. Therefore, ultrasonic models are mostly used in closed systems, where the accounting of water consumption is necessary for organizing the production process.
Even the installation of a good filtration system will not give a complete guarantee that there are no foreign impurities in the coolants.Therefore, it is best to refrain from installing ultrasonic meters for a house or apartment.
The procedure for checking the heat meter
Each heat meter must be regularly calibrated after 4-5 years. Without this, the Management Company may not accept meter readings and will generate a receipt for the general tariff.
First of all, you need to decide on the timing of this event. All information can be obtained from the instructions for the device. Next, you need to find out the address of the nearest organization that is authorized to carry out this work. In order to not in vain call specialists or dismantle the metering device, it is recommended to provide the following information by telephone:
- Model and brand of the heat meter, its serial number;
- Time elapsed since the last calibration;
- The principle of operation of the device.
The average cost of this event ranges from 3,500 to 6,000 rubles, depending on the brand of the device.
In conclusion, I would like to warn the owners of heat meters against intentional distortion of the current performance of the device. If fraud is detected, the device will be dismantled, and the amount of the fine will be from 10,000 rubles or more. You also need to take into account that the Criminal Code will recalculate at the general rate from the moment the testimony was last checked by their representative.
In the video, you can familiarize yourself with the specifics of installing a heat meter in a heating system.