Wood flooring is popular because it is durable, natural, has good decorative properties, and retains heat. The advantage of this design is that it allows you to do without arranging a concrete base. In order to properly build wooden floors in a private house on logs, it is necessary to take into account the need for effective ventilation.
The principle of construction of wooden floors
In most cases, the plank flooring is laid on logs. In this case, the supporting elements are mounted directly on the ground base, on a concrete screed or on brick (metal) supports. There are cases when the lags are embedded in the walls. Sometimes, for their laying, there are ledges near the vertical bases, and there are no intermediate supports. This will require the use of heavy beams of large cross-section.
For flooring on logs in a wooden house, a competent organization of ventilation (underground) is required. The durability of the structure, its protection from damage by moisture, fungus, and mold depends on this. The space under the flooring is insulated and insulated. The optimal time to make the floor is at the end of the heating season, since the appropriate humidity level in the room is set at this time.
Choice of wood
To arrange flooring from boards in the house, you need to choose the right building material. The following requirements are imposed on wood:
- the permissible level of humidity of the elements should not exceed 12% (the durability of the structure depends on the observance of this indicator);
- it is forbidden to use logs or boards on which chips are present
- cracks, greenery, other defects;
- fire-prevention and antiseptic processing of the material before its installation is mandatory.
Of the wood species, oak, pine, fir, ash, larch are used. During work, the type of base, the floor of the house, the type of topcoat are taken into account.
The microclimate in the house depends on how dry and ventilated the underground will be. If the building is large, you will have to equip forced ventilation. Otherwise, natural ventilation will do. To do this, airflows must be made around the perimeter of the basement in the foundation or walls. The maximum distance between them is 3 m.
The standard dimensions of the holes are 10 * 10 cm. They are located at a height of 30-40 cm from the ground (above the average thickness of the snow carpet). If heavy rainfall is typical for winters in the region, then ventilation pipes with a visor can be removed from the air. It is possible to improve air circulation in the underfloor space with the help of window fans.
To prevent rodents from getting inside the house, the air vents are protected with a fine mesh. If the underground has a depth of 50 cm or less, ventilation holes are made in the floor itself in the corners of the room. They are covered with decorative grilles. It is prohibited to put furniture on them or cover them with other objects.
Wooden floor base
When installing a wooden floor on logs in a private house, the type of base is taken into account.
- Priming. Such a floor is used in warm climatic zones, as it is cold.Before installing the lag, the fertile soil layer is removed, the base is rammed, a pillow is made of sand and crushed stone, which is also compacted. Lags are treated with an antiseptic solution and immersed in a bedding. The bars must be attached to the foundation. The insulated type of base involves the elimination of the fertile soil layer, soil compaction, waterproofing flooring, backfilling of crushed stone with its filling with cement milk. After it hardens, waterproofing is laid again, gypsum fiber boards are mounted, expanded clay is poured and a cement screed is poured. Lags are already installed on it.
- Concrete base. This option is the easiest. It provides for the preliminary laying of a waterproofing layer on which logs can be installed. During operation, it is necessary to constantly monitor the horizontal level of the elements. Insulating material is placed between the beams. A vapor barrier film must be laid on top of the wooden elements, after which the floor covering is laid.
- Brick or metal supports. Such a base assumes the presence of an underground cold or insulated space. Initially, columns are installed on the concrete screed, the height of which is checked by the level, and then lags are attached to them.
The choice of the base depends on the characteristics of the operation of the house, the climatic zone in which it is located, and the financial capabilities of the owner.
Required tools and materials
Before laying the floor along the logs in a wooden house, you should select the necessary material and tools. To work requires:
- a wooden beam of square or rectangular cross-section (the dimensions of the elements depend on the number of anchor points, the distance between the logs, the size of the span);
- roofing material or plastic film of suitable thickness for waterproofing;
- heat-insulating material: mineral wool, expanded clay;
- concrete mortar, gypsum fiber plates, sand, crushed stone, clay (when organizing the floor on the ground);
- antiseptics and fire retardants for wood processing;
- vapor barrier film or membrane;
- painting wide brushes for processing with protective compounds;
- plywood, massive grooved board;
- level, measuring tape, pencil for marking;
- a hacksaw for wood or an electric jigsaw;
- a hammer;
- screws, screws or nails, fasteners for tightening and fixing the lag;
- putty for leveling the surface of the base;
- parquet, linoleum, laminate for finishing.
A laser level is useful for marking walls. The processing of wooden elements is carried out with a plane, a chisel, a grinder. You can remove twisted nails with a nail puller.
Do-it-yourself installation of wooden floors on logs
Laying a log in a house is a simple process, but it requires correct calculations of the amount of timber and the distance between the elements, the accuracy of marking the base. Installation consists of the following stages:
- Calculation of the amount of material and marking the base. To get the exact number, you need to know the floor area, as well as the type of finish. If plywood is used as a floor covering, the distance between the timber is less than 30 cm. A 5 cm thick plank floor requires a step between the logs of 80-100 cm. Beacons and a cord, a laser level are used for marking.
- Preparation of the base. If the logs are mounted on concrete, the screed is cleaned of debris, all cracks and potholes on it are removed. Before installing the wooden elements, a waterproofing material is laid on the floor. If the base is soil, the fertile layer is removed. Further, the soil is rammed, a layer of sand and gravel is poured onto it, each of which is moistened and rammed. Waterproofing is laid on top of the pillow. On the concrete base, you can also install brick supports on which the logs are mounted. Waterproofing is also spread over them.
- Features of the installation of the lag. To fix the elements on the base, use metal corners, dowels. You can level the timber using wooden blocks or wedges. Laying is controlled by the building level. The elements should not touch the walls: a deformation gap of 1-2 cm is required. The timber is first laid along the edges of the room, and then in the middle.
- Insulation laying. Expanded clay or mineral wool should be placed between the logs. At the same stage, a vapor barrier film is laid. It is mounted with an overlap on the walls. The joints between the canvases are glued with construction tape.
- Installation of the subfloor. For this, boards are used. This stage is not always necessary.
If laminate, linoleum or parquet will be used for finishing, waterproof plywood is laid on top of the logs. You need to fasten the sheets so that their edges fall on the center of the log. To strengthen the base, lay 2 layers of plywood. Do this with bandaging the sutures.
Often solid wood elements are used for fine finishing, so you need to consider how to lay the floors in the house from planks. The following materials are used for work:
- Grooved solid board. It is easy to install and use, and has a beautiful appearance. You can improve the decorative properties with varnish or paint without preliminary priming. The boards are laid across the elements of the draft layer. A deformation gap is left between the flooring and the wall along the perimeter. The elements are fastened with self-tapping screws, for which holes are made in advance. The next row is inserted with a spike into the groove of the previous one and tapped with a rubber hammer, and then fixed.
- Solid parquet board. Such elements are somewhat shorter than the previous version. They are laid "apart", and self-tapping screws are screwed in from the side of the thorn. If the parquet board is laid on plywood, first it is fixed with glue, and then with mechanical fasteners. Last but not least, varnish or paint is applied to the surface.
If regular boards are used, they need to be sanded and primed. Installation of a wooden floor on logs can be done independently, if you follow the nuances and technology of work. The selection and laying of the material is done responsibly so that you do not have to repeat the repair in 1-2 years.