Household climate control units are not able to provide a comfortable microclimate in large-area objects. In trade and concert halls, workshops of enterprises, sports complexes, it is necessary to install industrial air conditioners. This equipment is characterized by increased power and cold performance. It helps to reduce the temperature, humidify and purify the air in the manned room.
The device and features of an industrial air conditioning system
Air conditioners are divided into three categories depending on the area of application:
The latter group includes installations that control the climate in administrative and medical institutions, sales halls, production halls, sports and entertainment complexes with an area of more than 250-300 m2. The features of the equipment are: the complexity of the device, high cooling capacity and cost. The working life of industrial climate systems is 20-30 years, taking into account constant operation. Household installations cannot function in such a rhythm.
Air conditioners for large rooms are designed not only for forced air exchange, they also process flows. The functions of an industrial air conditioning system include filtration, dehumidification or humidification, heating or cooling of air.
Significant parameters when choosing climate control equipment are energy efficiency and unit cost, calculated for 1 kW of cold performance.
Types of climate systems
There are several types of industrial air conditioners. The equipment is selected depending on the purpose of the serviced premises and the requirements for the climate system.
Multizone VRF and VRV units
The multi-zone air conditioning system allows you to simultaneously serve a large number of rooms. It consists of one powerful outdoor unit and dozens of indoor modules. They are connected to each other by copper pipes.
The abbreviation VRV was patented by Daikin and stands for Variable Refrigerant Volume. Other companies had to slightly change the name of the system (VRF), which operates on the same principle.
Each indoor unit is equipped with a valve that regulates the amount of freon. The ability to change the amount of refrigerant allows you to set individual air parameters in the premises.
Pros of a multi-zone system:
- cost savings in comparison with the option of equipping each room with a separate air conditioner;
- various options for placing internal modules that do not take up free space;
- centralized block management;
- the preset microclimate is maintained with high precision in the premises;
- low noise level.
Various types of indoor units are used in multi-zone air conditioning:
- Cassette devices. The modules are installed under a false ceiling, they do not take up the space of the room. The lower part of the body is made in the form of a lattice or distribution louvers. The design ensures an even air flow. The devices are very powerful.
- Channel systems.Installation of an industrial air conditioner involves placement under the ceiling. The flow of processed air is distributed through air ducts with decorative grilles. A feature of the system is the ability to cover a room with an area of up to 300 m2 and a capacity of up to 25 kW.
- Column or floor devices. The devices are characterized by significant weight and lack of fasteners. They are installed in places where it is impossible to place other types of climatic equipment.
- Wall mounted. The indoor unit is placed on the wall. The number of modules depends on the power of the equipment and the size of the room.
Chiller-fan coil system
The system is assembled from an outdoor unit (chiller) and several heat exchangers inside the building (fan coil units). Water is the coolant in the working circuit. The chiller cools the liquid down to 6-8 ° C and uses pumps to supply it to the fan coil units. Chillers are manufactured with air, water and remote condensers. System advantages:
- chillers are energy efficient, easy to install and operate;
- have no restrictions on the number of indoor units and the length of the pipeline;
- it is possible to add ventilation and space heating.
Central and roof air conditioners
A central air conditioner for industrial premises consists of standard sections for air intake and supply, filtration, cooling, irrigation and heating. A connection to the chiller is required for operation. A reliable and durable climatic system is used in conjunction with other systems - multi-zone, chiller-fan coil.
Rooftop air conditioners (rooftops) are installed on the flat roof of buildings. They cool / heat the air to the specified parameters and process it before supplying it to the manned room.
Precision air conditioners
Precision installation is a type of cabinet air conditioner. The system is equipped with a hygrostat to precisely maintain the humidity in the room. The power of the device is within 5-100 kW. Air conditioners consist of two units, the internal one has the ability to distribute cold air through the top and bottom panels.
The control accuracy of air conditioning of industrial equipment is 2% in terms of temperature and humidity.
Choosing an industrial air conditioner
The use of industrial climatic technology involves the maintenance of large areas. The equipment is distinguished by its large dimensions, complex structure and installation. When choosing an air conditioner for production, a theater hall or a hotel, many factors are taken into account:
- Electricity consumption - among industrial air conditioning systems, the most expensive are central and roof climatic complexes, multi-zone VRF and VRV installations are economical.
- Design features - not all equipment has the function of adjusting parameters in individual rooms.
- When choosing the type of equipment, they are guided not only by its price, but also by the cost of installation. Inexpensive rooftop units will require high installation costs.
- Ventilation capability - the air conditioning system is shaped according to the task at hand. A central air conditioner is connected to the “chiller-fan coil” scheme, which provides fresh air.
- building area, premises;
- the total amount of heat generated by the appliances;
- the presence and location of sources of natural ventilation;
- the number of people in the room.
The type of climate system depends on the purpose of the building. For public, shopping and entertainment complexes, channel and cassette systems are recommended. Maintenance of industrial premises, workshops is carried out by central air conditioners or chiller-fan coil units. In medical institutions, scientific centers, museums, precision complexes are installed that maintain the specified parameters with high accuracy.