Cesspools are commonly used to divert sewage by country house owners. The most common problem is fast filling of the receiver. Even regular drainage does not help. The problem must be solved, otherwise the sewage system may completely fail.
Why the water may not leave
A cesspool is a reservoir that is dug directly into the ground. Usually a layer of rubble, sand or broken brick is laid on the bottom, sometimes the bottom and walls are left unpaved. The principle of operation is the gradual seepage of wastewater into the ground through the walls and bottom of the structure. Violation of the absorbent properties of the soil can occur for the following reasons:
- Bottom silting - the appearance of a layer of fecal silt at the bottom, which prevents the passage of water into the ground.
- Grease on the walls and bottom.
- Freezing of the soil.
- Insufficient receiver volume. Perhaps more people began to use the sewage system, additional devices appeared.
- Low activity of bacteria that cannot cope with the processing of organic matter. This happens for the following reasons: lack of organic matter in the system, too much household chemicals that kill microflora.
Ways to solve the problem
Flush the system first. To do this, its contents are pumped out and the reservoir is filled with clean water. Live bacteria are poured in a day later. This is necessary to liquefy the hard crust at the bottom. Microorganisms destroy the sediment, after which the sludge is removed.
For these purposes, you can use:
- Septic Shock Bioforce. 1 package is designed for 1 m3 the volume of the pit. The cost is about 900 rubles.
- Dr. Robik 509 - 1 bottle for 2 m³ effluent. The cost is about 600 rubles.
Important! Further fermentation can be supported by Dr. Robik 409. It is added if the temperature of the effluent is higher than + 4 ° C.
Removing the grease film
Violation of the filtration capacity of the pit occurs if a large amount of fat and soap suds are poured into it with the drain. These connections clog the pores of the soil and the pipeline. The film formed prevents the liquid from seeping into the ground. The problem will arise in any case if the system is not equipped with a grease trap.
Soap and fatty compounds are eliminated by the following drugs:
- Roetech K-87 - the bottle is designed for 1 m³ of waste water.
- Drainage Comfort by BIOFORCE - 1 sachet is poured into 10 liters of water. Used for cleaning pipes.
- Dr. Robik 809 - Eliminates soap formations.
Cleaning takes place in several stages:
- The pit is emptied and clean water is poured into it. Allow to settle so that the chlorine present in the liquid evaporates.
- Preparations in proportion according to the attached instructions are poured through the sinks and the toilet.
- The operation of the sewerage system begins. Monitor performance metrics. If there is no result, the cleaning is repeated.
Biologics help to remove deposits in the pipeline and continue their action in the container. Bacteria that break down fat and soap formations are systematically introduced into the pit.
Discharge of clarified effluents
- device of a more capacious pit;
- connection to the system of additional capacity;
- installation of a drainage well or device of a filtration field.
In the latter case, the pit is modernized into a septic tank.
For the construction of a filtration well, it is necessary to dig a shaft with a depth of about 4 m, until a sand layer appears. The structure is erected without a bottom and / or with perforated walls. A layer of crushed stone with a thickness of 20-30 cm is laid on the bottom. The walls can be made of any available materials: car tires, bricks, reinforced concrete rings.
The pit and the filtration well are connected using a pipe with a diameter of 110 mm with a slope of 2 cm per 1 m of pipe. As a result, a structure will be obtained in which the first chamber is necessary for mechanical cleaning (heavy particles settle at the bottom), and in the second the liquid is clarified and drained into the soil.
The construction of the filtration field requires a large area of the site. The structure consists of perforated pipes dug into the ground. First, a layer of earth with a depth of 1-1.5 m is taken out, a layer of sand and crushed stone (25 cm) is poured. Pipes are mounted on top of the pillow and again covered with crushed stone-sandstone mixture. Cover with a layer of soil.
Filtration of wastewater produced by 1 person will require 8 m of pipes. Drainage fields require a large area; to reduce it, pipes are mounted in parallel. For free movement of drains, observe a slope of 25 mm per 1 running meter. m.
Thermal insulation measures
Freezing of a pit occurs if the owner neglected the requirements for deepening the tank below the level of soil freezing. To prevent pipes from freezing, they should be insulated based on local weather conditions.
In case of freezing of the system, the consequences are eliminated in the following ways:
- steam generator;
- thermal insulation work after heating;
- heating cable installation.
Important! The common method of pouring boiling water into the pipes causes the return of feces and an unpleasant odor from the pit. You will then have to collect the fecal matter and flush the pipes. The best option is to use a steam generator for heating.
If the ice crust is present only on the surface of the pit, the following steps must be taken:
- make several holes;
- heat the ice with a steam generator;
- pump out waste water;
- pour boiling water to remove the remaining ice.
When the temperature of the system reaches + 30 ° C, biological products Dr. Robik 509 or Septic Shock Bioforce are added to the pit to activate the fermentation process.
To prevent such situations in the warm season, it is necessary to carry out insulation. In winter, you can also prevent a similar situation. A fire is made near the pit to warm up the earth. Expanded clay is also spread on burning coals. When the firewood goes out, the septic tank is surrounded by polystyrene foam. It is mounted on the ground around the pit in 2 layers, and the diameter of the blind area should be equal to the depth of the pit.
The pipeline is sheathed with heat-insulating covers. The best way to prevent freezing is to use a heating cable that runs on mains. Depending on the modification and designation, it is laid directly in the pipe or outside.
Important! It is life-threatening to connect various metal pins hammered into the soil to the mains to warm up the earth.
Preventing the problem
To prevent the rapid filling of the pit, it is necessary to observe a number of rules during operation:
- Timely pump out sewage from the pit. Especially when storing the system for the winter.
- Systematically flush the walls and bottom of the pit. It is enough to do this once a year.
- To eliminate odor and soapy film, bacteria or chemicals should be poured into the pit regularly during the warm season.
- Even at the time of the installation of the sewer pit, it is necessary to take into account the depth of soil freezing. If necessary, the reservoir is additionally insulated.
Compliance with these simple measures will allow you to achieve reliable uninterrupted functioning of the sewer system for many years.