An increased content of gas in the air of a closed room threatens with poisoning or an explosion. Install a gas leakage sensor for a home in order to receive a warning signal in a dangerous situation. The device triggers when the permissible concentration is exceeded, notifies about this with light and sound. There is no universal sensor for all types of harmful emissions; modifications for carbon monoxide, natural, carbon dioxide are produced.
- What is the danger of a gas leak
- The composition of the mixture
- Poisoning symptoms and complications
- Leakage reasons
- Defective burners
- Defective cylinder
- Damaged hoses
- Signs of a gas leak
- How to determine by eye
- How to identify the sound
- Do's and don'ts when a problem is found
- What to do yourself
- Where to go
- How to use and maintain gas equipment
- Types and principle of operation of gas leak detectors
- How to install a signaling device
What is the danger of a gas leak
An unplanned release of domestic gas from the system is not a disaster, but such a situation is recognized emergency... If detected, you need act without delayso as not to aggravate the situation.
Potential risks to the user in the event of leakage:
- methane, propane accumulates in the air, detonation hazard when a spark appears;
- a person breathing in vapors of a gas mixture, can get poisoned mild or severe.
For people dangerous content of gas vapors in the air from 4%, the atmosphere becomes explosive at impurity concentration over 14.5%.
The composition of the mixture
Natural gas is used as fuel, which colorless and odorless, if there is no hydrogen sulfide in it. The substance weighs less than air, 97 - 98% methane, the composition of the mixture depends on the field.
The gas mass contains Components:
- propane, methane, butane;
- hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, helium;
- water vapor.
Household gas is treated before being supplied, harmful impurities are removed in order to increase the flammability of the gaseous substance. For example, methane contains hydrogen, which increases the intensity of the flame, while water vapor and hydrogen sulfide reduce this indicator. Add ethanethiol, ethyl mercaptan to impart a pungent odor.
Poisoning symptoms and complications
A long stay in a gas-polluted room leads to a deterioration:
- drowsiness is felt, paralysis of the limbs is possible;
- a person loses consciousness, falls into a coma, convulsions begin;
- breathing is accelerated, the skin of the face and mucous membranes turn blue;
- the pulse decreases.
After the postponed poisoning, they appear complications in the form of circulatory disorders of the brain, polyneuritis, heart attack. Hearing and vision impairment is possible.
Natural mixture from the main gas pipeline rises to the ceiling and fills the upper tiers of the building.
The explosion occurs when coincidence:
- gas concentration in the room reaches the limit at which an explosion occurs;
- appears within the radius of the danger zone open fire.
As a result of the ignition of gas particles in the atmosphere a large amount of heat is generated in an instant, the pressure rises several times. As a result, the walls of the room are destroyed, and whole spans and sections suffer in an apartment building.
If the pressure in the service line changes, or the supplier interrupts the fuel supply, he is obliged to warn users about this. The burners can be switched on, and when the supply stops, they will go out. After the gas flow is resumed, the mixture will freely escape into the room.
Leakage is caused by reasons:
- installation gas equipment in violation of rules and regulations, non-observance of fire-prevention measures;
- operating errors, untimely repair and maintenance of devices;
- carelessness of people.
A working stove that is left unattended becomes a source of danger. Sometimes burners are turned on to heat rooms, which cannot be done.
The technical devices of the gas system, including the burners, require periodic maintenance and repair.
The main types of damage:
- The burner does not ignite. The malfunction is caused by clogging of the nozzle with food particles, liquid, a crack in the insulating layer of the igniter. The solenoid valve may be damaged. In the case of automatic switching on, the presence of electric current in the network is checked.
- The burner goes out for no apparent reason. Gas supply adjustment or nozzle cleaning required. If it doesn't help, then they call the technician.
- Electric ignition does not work, there is a click, but a spark does not appear. The reason is a malfunction of the ignition unit, oxidation of the contacts.
Sluggish and intermittent tongues of flame indicate a clogged orifice of the jet, since the height of the fire depends on the volume of incoming fuel. Call the master for adjusting the air damper and cleaning the nozzle.
Only containers that have passed technical examination... The test results for welded cylinders are stamped on a steel plate near the neck, for seamless ones - at the bottom.
Cases when can not use the balloon:
- there are large foci of rust and corrosion on the outer coating;
- the walls have protrusions, large dents, cracks;
- the valve does not work or turns poorly;
- the time of the technical check is overdue, or there is no information about it (there is no stamp);
- there is no plug on the fitting;
- there is a smell of gas near the cylinder.
Sleeves for connecting a stove with an in-house gas pipe are rubber without reinforcement, reinforced and bellows. The service life, respectively, is 2 - 3 years, 5 - 10 years, 15 - 30 years. Do not use the products after the expiration date.
Causes of gas leaks through the hose:
- Kink or misalignment... The hose should not touch hot surfaces, and bending reduces the volume of fuel supplied to the burner.
- Incorrect connection. Docking with the output of the slab is carried out using angle or straight steel fittings. Do not install the hose using welding or soldering.
Signs of a gas leak
Indoors pay attention to signs:
- hissing sound;
- yellowing of the leaves of indoor flowers;
- bubbling of water in open containers;
- the appearance of brown spots on the snow next to the box of the outer cylinder.
Snow frost or dew drops may appear on objects in the gas outlet area.
Pungent odor components are added to household gas to detect even small leaks. Sometimes the smell of gas can be on the staircase, where it moves from the problem apartment.
- safe for humans;
- do not contribute to metal corrosion;
- does not emit harmful particles during combustion.
The components are mixed in such an amount that a person feels the volume of an impurity in the air corresponding to 1/5 dose of the lower explosion rate.
How to determine by eye
You can check for gas leaks by preparing a soapy solution. Rub soap or dishwashing liquid with water.
Apply foam with a brush in places:
- connections of main pipes with a hose, sleeves with a stove;
- joints above and below the gas meter;
- connecting a shut-off valve;
- internal pipe joints under the cover;
- bottle necks, valve threads.
The appearance of bubbles indicates the release of the gas mixture. In these places, you need to put rubber gaskets to ensure tightness.
How to identify the sound
Gas fuel is supplied to consumers with a certain pressure in the pipes. Standard pressure is 0.05 - 5.0 kgf / cm2. If gas bursts out of a crack, a leaky joint, a hissing sound is produced that can be easily heard in silence. With a strong leak, the sound will be louder, it will take the form of a whistle, after which it is imperative to check the gas leak at home.
Do's and don'ts when a problem is found
In the event of a leak, there are special recommendations that gas consumers must know and follow. Smelling when you enter the room you cannot use the switch. A spark is generated when the contacts are opened or connected, which can ignite the gas particles in the air.
What to do yourself
If the gas supply cannot be eliminated:
- open windows, doors, creating a draft, so you can reduce the threat of an explosion;
- take other people and children out of the danger zone;
- leave the dangerous area, taking documents with them, some money.
The neighbors are notified by knocking on the door of the apartment, the windows on the staircase at the entrance are opened.
Where to go
If the apartment smells like gas, they call to the emergency dispatch service by phone 104. The phone can only be used outside the affected area so as not to provoke an explosion.
Conversation conveys information:
- the nature of the accident, information about the smell, damage, whether the valve is closed;
- data on the victims;
- the place of the current situation (inside or outside the building);
- your name, surname.
If there are people who have been injured, call an ambulance.
How to use and maintain gas equipment
Gas-powered units can be used if the house has operating smoke and ventilation ducts in working order. Maintenance and repair equipment performs licensed organization on the basis of a contract for such work between the contractor and the customer.
They replace hoses, plates, speakers, and other devices in the event of:
- the operating time specified by the manufacturer has expired;
- the service organization requires replacement during technical inspection due to the impossibility of repair.
Rearrangement, replacement, shutdown of gas is required city service permit... Installation, connection, repair work is carried out by technicians with a permit, and independent actions are prohibited.
Types and principle of operation of gas leak detectors
They are distinguished by the type of connection wireless and wired gas leak detector. Models from the network are produced with the required level of protection, therefore, the fear that they themselves can provoke detonation at high gas pollution is not justified. Wireless can be installed anywhere, but you need to monitor the battery charge level.
Sensors also distinguish between:
- by the method of checking gas leakage: semiconductor, catalytic, infrared;
- by autonomy: stand-alone, component, mixed.
The principle of operation is based on the passage of air through analyzers that recognize gas impurities, determine the concentration... With an increase in excess of the norm the signal is triggered. There are models that automatically shut off the fuel supply, start ventilation, send a signal to the dispatcher. The sensor housing contains a primary transducer, a measuring module, a solenoid valve.
How to install a signaling device
Appliance you can mount it yourself... They find the installation site, fix it, supply power, connect the equipment. Step-by-step instructions are given in the device passport. It is better to plan the installation area even at the design stage of the gas system in the house.
To determine the most efficient location invite gas workers. More often, the gas analyzer is placed next to stoves, columns, gas boilers, while the distance from them should not exceed 4 m.